Italy recently fought back, hard, against illegal immigration. The Berlusconi government voted one of the harshest laws in Europe. In the summer, when the weather is better the number of boats increases as does the number of deaths. So it's a real problem. Before the elections... In the government there were people who tried to reach out to xenophobic feelings. They did it with a real problem as the base, and it must be solved. Several times boats were sent back Libya, their port of departure, without giving passengers a chance to ask for political asylum. Migration flows are not recent. They have always existed. Countries such as Italy have always been countries with openings. Solutions must be found on the other side of the Mediterranean. The HCR underlines that border control must not be done at the expense of people who may need international protection. Hundreds of kilometres from hemicycles and capitals, Lampedusa, south of Sicily, also known as 'The gateway to Europe'. At the moment boats full of immigrants arrive less frequently. Since the beginning of the year only 3800 persons have been through this. They come from Africa and sometimes pay with their lives for the promised land. On boats with 100 people, crossing the Mediterranean there will be 10, 15, 20 persons who have the right to international protection or at least have the right to ask for it. It is clear that the EU and HCR, the United Nations High Commissioner, understand the problems of these fluxes. But solving them only through border control and repression, is insufficient, one must go to the root of the problem. Last year the majority of those who arrived in Italy by sea passed through Lampedusa. 31,000 people. There is a centre to welcome them, at the moment it's quite empty. Until a few months ago it was overpopulated. It was a first stop centre, for a few days before being sent to the continent where the authorities decide on their fate. Then the situation got worse. It became an identification and deportation centre. Worried, exasperated by their living conditions, the immigrants rebelled, part of the centre burnt down. The conditions in a centre are miserable. This partly justifies pushing away the boats. In 2008, almost 75% of the illegal immigrants arriving in Italy by sea asked for political asylum, over half of them obtained international protection. In this part of the Mediterranean, it's not always clear who has to take them in. Last April, a ship rescued immigrants between Malta and Lampedusa. Neither country wanted to accept them, in the end Italy did. There are different interpretations in Malta and Italy, on the rules applicable to rescue at sea, of ships transporting illegal immigrants. The problem is more general. Libya recently undertook to reinforce the fight against illegal immigration. Europe also has its work cut out. Through measures which include more control of the external borders and a more efficient control of the flux of illegal immigrants. Better distribution of the responsibilities between Member States. The EU recently called on the 27 Member States for better support for asylum seekers and refugees pushed towards Europe by wars and poverty. Yes, necessarily. I agree with my colleague Simon Busuttil. The policy must be European. We've progressed during this term which now ends with FRONTEX and other measures adopted by the EP and the Commission. But Northern Europeans really must be made aware. It requires funding. Summer's here, we'll face the problems of previous years, mitigated by policies like FRONTEX. But Europe must become aware. The African people that arrive in Malta, Lampedusa or the Canary Islands don't want to stay there. They want to go to Vienna or Berlin. We must be aware of that. We're in Chop, Ukraine, from here it's easy to reach four European countries Romania, Hungary, Slovakia and Poland through forests or mountains. Although very often, the journey for illegal migrants stops here in this sort of reception centre. Most immigrants come from Georgia, Moldova, China, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India. Then they get stopped because they don't have any identity papers. NGOs like this one, financed by the EU, welcome and support migrants in transit. Washing kits are distributed as well as familiar food and clothing. But it's at an earlier stage that the EU is putting in place key elements of its strategy for managing migration flows. Let's go to Odessa to see the scheme in action. The headquarters of the European project EUBAM is here in Odessa. It sets up a border management system at the gates of Europe to facilitate legal mobility while fighting illegal trafficking. One of this mission's priorities is to help Moldovan and Ukrainian authorities prevent illegal immigration and human trafficking. And to help them carry out criminal investigations in this international field. The European experts deployed have been chosen from all the countries of the EU. Jean-Pierre Albarelli is one of them. This is the main border crossing between the Ukraine and Moldova. About 3 million people pass through here every year. This mission offers advice and assistance to our Ukrainian and Moldovan colleagues to guide them in implementing European standards for border management. They still see the job as guarding borders and still call themselves 'border guards'. We guide them towards the concept of border management. But that's not all. The work is also to fight criminal networks made rich through trafficking and smuggling in humans. Enquiries are carried out on the ground and an analysis made of areas at risk and international coordination is necessary. We're leaving Ukraine to go to the heart of Moldova and its capital Chisinau. Alongside the efforts deployed against illegal migration The European approach is also to promote legal migration channels. Migration flux to the EU represents a major opportunity. We must manage the flux and ensure they don't become anarchist or unbridled. Concrete proof of this approach is that in 2008 Moldova signed a mobility partnership with 15 European countries. This partnership has already resulted in measures to provide better information about legal migration channels and work opportunities. Tamara could benefit directly from this European project. These types of initiative help promote legal immigration. They pay as much as 4,000 euros to go to an EU country but it's completely illegal. They have to wade through cold water or hide in cardboard boxes. Yes. There's no doubt about that. In the times of East and West Germany and the Berlin Wall, I visited East Germany and just by watching West German TV it was impossible for the German Communist regime to last. It lasted for a long time. But it seemed impossible from the citizen's point of view. In a globalised world, everybody knows our standard of life, and it's impossible for people not to want to come here. We need a very strong and clever European immigration policy. Not only to solve the obvious problems, but to work together with those countries so their best people don't leave. Yes, I agree with Simon Busuttil. They want to pass the buck to others. It would be good to have a strong agreement in the Parliament to impose it not only on our governments, but also on the social ruling classes. They must become aware of this problem. No. I know this problem well. In Spain, six years ago, we had to make a decision about the hundreds of thousands of people that had been allowed, absurdly, to enter with no restrictions and who were rotting and working. They were working illegally. Those with a legal job were regularised. They had entered the country a long time ago and they were working. And we have to understand something. The entry of legal immigrant workers in Europe and, as Simon Busuttil said, the return of illegal ones, is an absolute priority. Legal immigrants are very important for our economy and our progress. And also to pay for the pensions of many Europeans. Immigrants are very important for us. This policy is very difficult and requires qualified people to work on it and to address these problems. Spain applies a hard policy to control the entry and return of illegal immigrants. Six years ago we had a necessary regularisation, also done in France. This was essential, because it's unacceptable to have people exploited working illegally, and not contributing to the social welfare for themselves and the country.